You may also want to check out the preview for the upcoming Christie's auction (Modern & Contemporary Arab, Iranian and Turkish Art) in Emirates Towers. I'm not sure if today is the final day of the preview, but I went last night and it was quite good. And with it being Christie's you know the selection is of high pedigree.
The auctions (on April 17-18) are also open to the public, if you're keen.
The Ara Gallery, on April 22-23 will also have a fundraising exhibition/auction that includes artworks, while not necessarily "famous", have been created by established, well-known artists from the region such as AbdulQader Al Rais and Dr Najat Makki.
I kind of get the feeling what you might be looking for is more a museum than an art gallery - as you're interested to see famous items and not necessarily in a commercial setting. Unfortunately, I can't recommend anything like that.
The British Museum has a show (Treasures of the World's Cultures) touring currently which will stop in Abu Dhabi this May-July, which may interest you. Looks great, I'm really looking forward to it personally! I can never get enough of ancient artifacts!
Hope you find something you enjoy and if so, please do share!